Project description

Imidazoles are common scaffolds in highly significant biomolecules, including biotin, the essential amino acid histidine, histamine, the pilocarpine alkaloids, and other alkaloids, which have been shown to exhibit interesting biological activities such as antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities. Imidazole derivatives have also been found to possess many other pharmacological properties and are widely implicated in biochemical processes. Members of this class of diazoles are known to possess NO synthase inhibition, antibiotic, antifungal, and antiulcerative activities and include compounds, which are inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase and substances with CB1 receptor, VEGF receptor I and II, and neuropeptide Y antagonistic activities.Dialkylimidazolium salts represent a class of ionic compounds with melting points lower than 100°C so called “ionic liquids”. The past decade has seen explosive growth of studies on ionic liquids for their diverse applications as catalyst, liquid crystals, green solvent in organic synthesis, and in separations, electrochemistry, photochemistry, CO 2 storage devices, etc. Ionic liquids have some unique characteristics including negligible volatility, non-flammability, high thermal stability, low melting point, broad liquid range, and controlled miscibility with organic compounds, which meets the demands of high performance lubricant.They are „designer solvents”, as their physical properties such as melting point, viscosity, density and hydrophobicity can be modified according to the nature of the desired reactions by altering the nature of their cations and anions. Also the suitability of ionic liquids for the dissolution of cellulose was the subject of various investigations by a growing number of working groups.

Ionic liquids (ILs), due to their high conductivities and their very low vapor pressures, were used to increase the conductivity of lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) based solutions in lithium-ion batteries, reducing certain safety concerns. Due to the most stable and the high ionic conductive characteristics, ionic liquids based on imidazolium salts have been studied extensively as non-volatile electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells.

Recent advances in green chemistry and organometallic chemistry have extended the boundary of imidazoles to the synthesis and application of a large class of imidazoles as imidazole related N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC), due to the fact that these NHC can stabilize both high as well as low oxidation metal ions and form stable carbene complexes with a wide range of metal ions. The importance of carbenes as ligands is exemplified by their role in the development of olefin metathesis, celebrated in the award of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

Recently published comprehensive books and papers indicate chemical applications of ultrasound, ‘‘Sonochemistry”, is a new trend in organic chemistry, offering a versatile and facile pathway in a large variety of syntheses. Thus, a large number of organic reactions can be carried out under ultrasonic irradiation in higher yields, shorter reaction time and milder conditions.

Having in view these considerations our goal is to design and synthesize new imidazole derivatives which can be useful in three mainly directions: imidazole derivatives with pharmaceutical properties, ionic liquids imidazole based and imidazole related N-heterocyclic carbenes.

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